North Dakota is the 39th state of the United States, having been admitted to the union on November 2, 1889.

It is in the northern Plains region of the United States, bordered by the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba to the north, Minnesota to the east, South Dakota to the south, and Montana to the west. The state capital is Bismarck, and the largest city is Fargo. North Dakota is the 19th most extensive but the 4th least populous and the 4th least densely populated of the 50 United States.

North Dakota weathered the Great Recession of the early 21st century with a boom in natural resources, particularly a boom in oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state. The development drove strong job and population growth, and low unemployment. However, falling oil prices have put pressure on state finances, leading to questions about the lack of diversity in the North Dakota economy and its vulnerability to commodity price swings.